Kerala (Malayalam: കേരളം; Keralam) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India.To its east and northeast, Kerala borders Tamil Nadu and Karnataka respectively; to its west and south lie Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean with the islands of Lakshadweep and the Maldives, respectively. Kerala
envelops Mahé, a coastal exclave of Pondicherry. Kerala
is one of the four states in South India.
First settled in the 10th century BCE by speakers of Proto-South Dravidian, Kerala was influenced by the Mauryan Empire. Later, the Cheran kingdom and feudal Namboothiri Brahminical city-states became major powers in the region. Early contact with overseas lands culminated in struggles between colonial and native powers. Finally, the States Reorganisation Act of November 1, 1956 elevated Kerala to statehood. Social reforms enacted in the late 19th century by Cochin and Travancore were expanded upon by post-Independence governments, making Kerala among the Third World's longest-lived, healthiest, most gender-equitable, and most literate regions. However, Kerala's suicide, alcoholism and unemployment rates rank among India's highest.
The etymology of Kerala is widely disputed, and is a matter of conjecture. It may derive from Sanskrit keralam, means 'the land added on', with reference to its mythical and geographical origins. Another prevailing theory states that it is an imperfect Malayalam portmanteau that fuses kera ('coconut palm tree') and alam ('land' or 'location' or 'abode of' ). Natives of Kerala - Keralites - thus refer to their land as Keralam. The most reliable theory is that the name is originated from the phrase chera alam (Land of the Chera)(Citation needed). Kerala's tourism industry, among others, also use the phrase God's own country.